SYURA DAN DEMOKRASI BARAT: KRITIK DAN SOLUSI MENUJU DEMOKRASI ISLAM

Toha Andiko

Abstract


Western scholars require democracy to meet the elements of tolerance, consultation, elections, balance, evaluation, separation of powers and political participation. However, in practice democracy is often equated with the experience and political traditions of Western Europe and the United States. Western countries often adopt a double standard in the conduct of democracy, this is evident from their democratic attitudes while in the country, and not democratic outside of the country. Another example of the multiparty and parliamentary electoral systems that prevail in Britain and France is not universally accepted as a single model of democracy. The Islamic democracy sometimes identified with shura is not an end in itself, but a way to arrive at the noblest goal of applying the Islamic Shari’ah. The Islamic government is a mixture of presidential and parliamentary systems. It has four organs: the presidential institution, the ahl al-Hall wa al-’Aqd council, the shura council, and the judiciary. The first three institutions are the selected institutions, therefore are directly accountable to the people. Members of judicial institutions are appointed by the President, but the President has no constitutional right to intervene in their work. The judiciary is immune from any influence, unless its decision is against the Shari’a. Thus, shura is the backbone of the Islamic political system, as the process by which it is produced and generated decisions on binding public affairs.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abdillah,Masykuri, Demokrasi di Persimpangan Makna: Respon Intelektual Muslim Indonesia Terhadap Konsep Demokrasi (1966-1993), Yogyakarta: Tiara Wacana, 1999

Amin, M. Masyhur dan Mohammad Najib, Agama, Demokrasi, dan Transformasi Sosial, Yogyakarta: LKPSM, 1993

Budiardjo, Miriam, Demokrasi di Indonesia: Demokrasi Parlementer dan Demokrasi Pancasila, Jakarta: Gramedia, 1996

Dahl, Robert, Modern Political Analysist, EnglewoodCliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1976, edisi ketiga.

Dahl, Robert, Polyarchy, Participation and Opposition, New Haven, Conn: Yale University Press, 1971

Effendy, Bahtiar, Demokrasi dan Agama: Eksistensi Agama dalam Politik Indonesia, dalam M. Deden Ridwan dan Asep Gunawan, Demokrasi Kekuasaan, Jakarta: LSAF-TAF, 1999

al-Ghazali,Muhammad, Huquq al-Insan ibn Ta’alim al-Islam wa Mitsaq al-Umam al-Muttahidah, Cairo: Dar al-Kitab al-Hadits,1965

Hawwa,Said, al-Islam, Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al‘Ilmiyah,1979

Held, David, Models of Democracy,Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press, 1987

Hidayat,Komaruddin, Tiga Model Hubungan Agama dan Demokrasi, dalam Elza Peldi Taher, Demokratisasi Politik, Budaya dan Ekonomi, Jakarta, 1994

Huwaidi, Fahmi, “al-Islam wa al-Dimuqratiyah”, alMustaqbal al-‘Arabi,

no.166, Desember 1992.

Khalid, Khalid M., Khulafa al-Rasul, Beirut: Dar alKutub al-Ilmiyah, 1974

Krauze, Enrique,”England, the United States, and the Export of Democracy”, dalam karya Brad Roberts, ed., The New democraticies: Global Change of US. Policy Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press,1990

Lewis, Bernard, et. al., Islam Liberalisme Demokrasi, Jakarta: Paramadina, 2002

Madjid, Nurcholis, Islam, Doktrin, dan Peradaban, Jakarta: Yayasan Paramadina,1992

Mahfud MD, Moh., Hukum dan Pilar-Pilar Demokrasi, Yogyakarta: Gema Media, 1999

Majid, Ahmad Abdul, Ru’yah Islamiyah Mu’ashirah, Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1991

Martin Seymour Lipset, Political Man: The Social Bases of Politics, Doubleday, 1959

Masdar, Umaruddin, dkk., Mengasah Naluri Publik Memahami Nalar Politik, Yogyakarta: LKIS, 1999

Al-Maududi, Al-Hukumah al-Islamiyah, Cairo: alMukhtar al-Islami, 1976

Muller, Edward N., A Dependent Economic Development, Aid Dependence on the United States and Democratic Breakdown in the Third World, International Studies, 1985

al-Nafisy, ‘An Ma Yahkum al-Islam, London: TaHa Publisher Ltd., 1980

Othman, M. Fathi, Min Ushul al-Fikr al-Siyasi, Beirut: al-Risalah, 1984

Randall, John Herman, Jr., The Making of The Modern Mind, New York: Columbia University Press, 1976

Robertson, Roland dan Jo Ann Chirico,”Humanity, Globalization, and Worlwide Religious resurgence: A Theoretical Exploration”, Sociological Analysis 46, no. 3 tahun 1985

Syadzali, Munawir, Islam and Governmental System, Jakarta: INIS, 1991

Sartori,Giovanni, “Democracy”, dalam karya David L. Sills, ed., International Encyclopedia of Social Science, 1968

Talmon,JL., The Origins of Totalitarian Democracy New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1960

Vanhanen,Tatu, The Process Democratization; A Comparative Study of 147 States, New York: Crane Russak, 1990

Ubaidillah, A. et. al., Pendidikan Kewargaan Demokrasi, HAM, & Masyarakat Madani, Jakarta, IAIN Jakarta Press, 2000, Cet. ke-1


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.